Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious affliction, formerly known as acute renal failure, produces a rapid buildup of nitrogenous wastes decreases urine output, usually within hours or days of disease onset. Kidneys remove waste and extra water from the blood to form urine, which then flows from the kidneys to the bladder through the ureters. Wastes in the blood are produced from the normal breakdown of active muscle and food.
AKI forms in severity. In advanced AKI, even kidney transplantation is required with therapies including rehydration and dialysis.
Nanotechnology, the engineering of atoms or molecules at the nanoscale for biomedical applications is beneficiary for the treatment, diagnosis, and research of diseases, specifically for kidney disorders. Nanomedicine increases drug solubility, reduces off-target side effects and diagnostic tools. Recent researches in this field improve imaging and therapeutics for AKI. Nanomedicine tailors with kidney retention and binds with key membranes and cells which are associated with renal diseases. The binding enhances cells’ localization, tolerability and efficacy.
Nanoparticles are useful as a candidate tool in medicine and are served as effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents. They reduce undesirable systemic side effects and overcome physical barriers. An increasing number of studies are combining nanoparticles and strategies to establish better treatment for AKI patients.
The improvement of imaging AKI agents is promising area in the nanotechnology. It is necessary to monitor kidney functions of patients as advanced stages of the disease for getting the best results from the treatment.
The therapeutic effects of the DNA origami nanostructures (DONs) are able to scavenge reactive oxygen species by insulating vulnerable cells from damage due to oxidative stress. The accumulation of the nanostructures in diseased kidneys provides an increased therapeutic effect compared with traditional AKI therapy. AKI treated with DONs displayed improved kidney excretory function.
There are significant challenges and issues remain to be addressed regarding nanotechnology, but the potential impact of it on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disorders is widely recognized.