Modern Transportation Strategies with New Battery-powered Vehicles
The electric vehicles have lower energy losses as compared to other traditional vehicle technologies. The petrol and diesel vehicles have low energy efficiencies; in general, only 20 percent of the total power supply is used to power these vehicles. The remaining 80 percent is lost through oil extraction, refining, transport, evaporation and heat from the engine.
Today, most of the hydrogen production is dependent on fossil fuels, but a zero-emission pathway is possible if renewable energy is used to extract, treat water, and crack water into hydrogen, compress or liquefy hydrogen to the economic volume and supply a fuel cell vehicle with hydrogen. Each step of the process entails a penalty for energy and thus a loss of efficiency. Charging an electric vehicle is transparent, most of the time because of overnight, at-home charging. A fuel cell vehicle is not as efficient or green as of electric vehicles because it takes more electricity to produce hydrogen fuel than to charge an EV battery pack form the grid. Electric cars have battery while fuel cell cars have fuel cells. The battery has some energy stored in it as chemical energy which it converts to electrical energy when required. This is the main reason why fossil fuel-driven vehicles are emission-intensive and relatively expensive.
According to a report by Infrastructure Victoria, a full transition to hydrogen in 2046 would require 64 TWh (TeraWatt hours) of electricity for both light and heavy vehicles, equivalent to 147 percent increase in Victoria’s annual electricity consumption. Meanwhile, electric battery vehicles would require about 22 TWh which accounts for one-third of the amount. In terms of infrastructure, consumer acceptance, grid impact, technology maturity, and reliability, both technologies face different challenges. The battery vehicles aren’t yet suitable to replace all vehicles on the road. However, the current technological developments indicate that a large proportion of the current fleet could be electric batteries, including many cars, buses, and short-haul trucks. The renewable energy generation will be used as quickly as possible in the coming decades with energy efficient strategies such as the direct export of renewable electricity.